How To Collect Rainwater For Drinking A Step By Step Guide
Why Save Rainwater?
Rainwater is a great source of water. We get fresh water from the rainwater. Though sometimes we get this water with many minerals and salts. All are not useful. Some are also very harmful to our body.
Rainwater may be used as portable as well as non-portable uses like livestock watering, landscape irrigation, and washing.
Using and collecting rainwater has many benefits ranging from standard water quality to lessen stress on the underground aquifers.
Richard Heinichen said that all water is called rainwater. He is right in his opinion. All water from rivers, well, aquifer and harvested from rooftop previously were cloud-borne.
After falling from the sky, rainwater percolates by the rocks and earth, where it absorbs salts and minerals.
Heinchen indicates that for many cases, this water absorbs many contaminants like pesticides, industrial chemicals, and fecal coliform bacteria got in the earth.
Reserve water before falling on the ground. View of the Texas Water Development Board is that there are no pollutants in rainwater which plagues underground and surface water supplies.
Rainwater contains low hardness level that lessens the application of detergents, soaps and removes the necessity of a water softener. Some materials resist tear and wear on plumbing fixtures.
Stored rainwater is a great source of water if power outages at the time of extreme drought when wells dry up.
There are some places where water supplies are very rear and not readily available. Collected rainwater is least expensive than storing bottle water.
Rainwater saving lessens the impact of aquifers, reduces the demand for threatened aquifers and ecologically sensitives.
Saving rainwater also minimizes flooding or erosion. About 50% of the land area is enveloped by the roof surface.
As it does not pump or treat and distribute by a complex network, reserving rainwater saves energy and the uses of rainwater.
Some municipal water users move to harvested rainwater to escape fluoridation and chlorination treatments.
Filters and Disinfection
The way of measuring filter is microns. 1 micron is about 1/25000 of an inch.
The measuring of sand is 100 to 1000 microns, the hair of human being is about 100 microns, the particle of dust is about one micron. A virus is smaller than .01 micron.
The first filtration system is cartridge filters. The range is more and capable of removing more.
Filters are nothing but the small size of particles that can capable of filtering. If the micron sizes are smaller, they are the better.
When it is finer, the slower the filtering process. Besides, it costs more. Filters need to change frequently as long time old filters are best for harmful pathogens and the microorganism.
For good water and rainwater system, a big filter is used to remove large particles and sand. The screens are easily accessible.
The after the filter is ten or twenty microns followed by ten to five-micron filter. They can clean least frequently but annually.
The task of the filter is to remove the substance from water. To ensure drinking water, filtration must be followed by disinfection.
The EPA needs ground or surface water to be disinfected before consuming.
Public water system adds disinfectants to remove microorganism which causes animals and people’s diseases.
It is an essential thing for rainwater also. But all are not harmful to us likely Giardia Lamblia may be deadly. Before consuming, you must need to remove it from the water.
There are various kinds of disinfections namely ionization, chlorination, membrane filtration, ultraviolet light. To evaluate disinfection, some unhealthy products must be treated.
The activeness of disinfection is measured by the indicator organism. It finds, implies that there is more pathogens present here.
The indicator organism is Total Coliform Bacteria denotes the presence of other pathogens in water.
Chlorine is used as a disinfectant for the public water system in various past countries.
The introduction of disinfecting water removes many diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, and dysentery. It also saves lots of lives. It may malign for possible side effects.
To disinfection, use 2.3 fluid ounces of household bleach per 1,000 gallons of water.
The amount of chlorine depends on the quality of water, temperature, and PH.
The negative side of chlorine is that it very easily combines with natural organic materials to make dangerous trihalomethanes such as chloroform.
Chloroform is created when chlorine acts as a fulvic acid or humic that are usually possible to get in the water.
Chlorine is dissipated and reactive. Keeping the dose correctly as applying the method of disinfection. THMs must be tested for water source as you like to use chlorine.
To remove harmful byproduct with using chlorine and make water purify, do the following things:
- Eliminate the byproducts if it is created. The system is costly meaning that the process should be employed.
- The attention of organics and particulates in the water prior to treating. You can do it by using the filters to remove particles from the water before chlorine treatment.
By using carbon filter you may change the taste and taste of water. It also called charcoal filter.
The filters are sometimes made of coconut shells and call a green solution. Carbon block filters are made of activated carbon mixed with the binding substance to a solid block.
Rainwater purification for drinking
There are many ways to treat rainwater to eliminate any contaminants which have the health risk. The professional advice and best way to get rid of this is to install a good type of water treatment system. The method treatments are stated below:
The aim of filtration is to remove particle or dissolve materials from water. There is lots of filtration system on the market. Particulate matter and microorganism vary according to the size and kinds of filters.
Water filters may not be a must to manage the chemical, microbial and physical quality of rainwater when tanks and catchments are well managed. Some filters need a power supply to operate it.
The purpose of using a filter is to remove some dissolved materials and particulate matter from water. There are lots of filtration devices found, and micro organism and particle removal vary for the type of filter.
UV disinfection by ultraviolet light irradiation (UV) is very active against protozoa, viruses, and bacteria. The UV system needs low maintenance, need no addition of chemicals and may add warning alarms to refer equipment faults. Specialist UV chambers are made to give a dosage of UV light at a given flow rate.
UV rays are very active when water is fresh and have no particles. Rainwater supplies require filters to confirm effective UV treatment. It fails to remove chemicals from water. The system needs a power supply. Water which may be disinfected using UV must be used straight away, not stored in tanks.
Chlorine disinfection is a very common form of disinfection which is very effective against viruses, harmful bacteria, Giardia. The good news is that has limited effect against Cryptosporidium. Notice the NSW Private Water Supply Guidelines page 35 for guidance on manually chlorinating a rainwater tank.
A Roof-Washing System
Between rainstorms, various pollutants may settle from the atmosphere and on your roof. Many rainwater harvesting methods include a roof washer to maintain these contaminants from getting into the cistern.
Roof washers catch and discard the first several gallons of rain in a storm before conveying the remainder to the tank.
An extremely easy roof-wash method can be produced from a 6- or 8-inch vertical PVC or polyethylene pipe set under the gutter, using an inlet just over every downspout into the cistern.
Industrial roof washers vary in cost from $100 to get a water diverter (available by mail order only by Safe Rain, an Australian firm) to $600 to get another roof washer.
The cistern is your single most significant investment for most of the rainwater harvesting methods. A reservoir can vary from a recycled whiskey barrel beneath the eaves of a home (appropriate for watering plants) into a large aboveground or buried tank which can hold 30,000 gallons or more. Cisterns are assembled from a vast assortment of materials.
Many cisterns are cylindrical for optimum strength-to-weight ratios. Regardless of what the substance, many experts advocate keeping the tank tightly closed to prevent evaporation and to maintain sun (which will encourage algae growth) and creatures (rodents, insects, and amphibians).
Cisterns are often equipped with settling pockets that keep sediment out of blending with water. The reservoir also requires an overflow pipe for extra rain that drops following the cistern is complete. If the rainwater harvesting system is the sole water supply, it is sensible to find the reservoir, so it could be filled using a water tank truck if needed.
In northern climates where rainwater is your only water supply, it could be necessary to oversize the cistern to offer carry-over throughout a substantial part of the winter when snowdrops rather than rain.
Route Your Rainwater
Much like the roofing, be sure lead-based solder wasn’t utilized in the gutter or downspout connections. Downspouts should be made to manage 1 1/4 inches of rain at a 10-minute period. A regular 1/4-inch mesh screening and basket strainers in the downspouts help capture leaves and other debris.
If the rainwater collection and storage process is located uphill from where the water is going to be properly used, the gravity-flow conveyance may be possible, however, the vertical space between storage and usage is rarely sufficient to attain sufficient pressure for contemporary home pipes. For many rainwater harvesting methods, a pump and pressure tank are all necessary for water delivery.
Learn How a Water Harvester Works
The fundamentals of a rain harvester are rather easy. But doing this in an efficient and sanitary manner takes a little creativity. You may need 7 Standard elements to harvest rainwater:
The catchment surface denotes the roof that will accumulate rainwater. Usually, the more significant, the better, as square footage will permit you to save more rain. The catchment surface is just one of the most crucial sections of rain.
Roof-Washing and First Flush Method
Considering that the catchment surface will be subjected to the components, it will certainly become filthy. As you want to clean your car now and then, your roofing requires a fantastic cleaning, also.
Luckily, you can let Mother Nature do the task for you using a roof-washing and original flush system. This collects the first couple of inches of rain and discards it at a flush method, eliminating debris naturally at the start of every rain.
You may want a couple of storage tanks to store your water. It’s also your primary concern regarding maintaining your system sanitary as it’s going to be where water may stagnate.
The conveyance system is the thing that joins the catchment surface into own storage tanks. This system may be as straightforward as a gutter top from the roof into a tank, but in case you’ve got several tanks, multiple catchments surface underground storage, then the machine can find a bit more complicated.
You’ll require the display to keep things off your roof and from your saved water. Likewise, they could permeate your water storage and lead to illness.
Water Filtration and Treatment
You can save as much rain as you prefer, but it is going to become contaminated without appropriate filtration and therapy gradually. There are various kinds of treatment and filtration discussed in another section.
The delivery process is to blame for getting the water from storage tanks and to your glass. Some areas straightforward as gravity-fed taps, but some involve pressurized pumps and intricate piping.