Polluting The Water Facts, Effects of Water Contaminations
Water can be contaminated various ways. It means that one or more substance has built up to such an extent which causes problems for humans as well as animals.
Lakes, oceans, rivers and other inland water may be cleaned up a particular amount of water by dispersing it harmlessly. If you pour a cup of black ink into a river, the ink disappeared for the great volume of water in the ocean.
Still, then the ink will remain there, but concentration is very low which you cannot see. The chemicals of such ink would not create any problem. If you pour gallons of ink in a river within few seconds by a pipe, the river turns into black rapidly.
The chemical has a great effect on the water within a short period. It also affects the health of the animals, plants, and humans who are dependent on rivers.
Thus, water pollution is all about quantities: So how much of polluting substance is given or how much big volume of water is released into.
A little amount of chemical has little impact on water, but a small quantity of toxic chemical have great impact pumped into a river and lake, where less clean water to disperse it.
What are the causes of water pollution?
Millions of people on the planet think that disposing of sewage waste is a great problem. This is the statistic of the World Health Organization that about 780 million people have no chance to drink safe water.
About 2.5 billion of people do not have well sanitation management. Though there have been lots of improvements in securing access to clean water. In the last decades, little improvement has been seen in the sanitation sectors.
Sewage disposal affects the environment of people and causes water-related diseases like diarrhea. It kills 760000 children under five every year. In the developed countries people use flush toilets which carry sewage waste hygienically and rapidly away from the homes.
In theory, sewage is completely natural substance which must be broken down without any harm to the environment. Ninety percent of sewage is water. In sewage, there are various kinds of chemicals.
People collect plastic, paper, and some other wastes from the pharmaceuticals. If people become sick with viruses, the sewage they make carries the viruses for the environment. It may catch illness like typhoid, hepatitis, and cholera from sea and river water.
Only a few statistics explain the scale of the problem which comes from waste water. Almost half of the oceans are polluted mainly by waste water and sewage.
The world produces five to ten billion tons of industrial waste every year most of which are thrown into oceans, rivers, and other waterways. In the US around 4000,000 factories take clean water from rivers.
Recently a great improvement occurs in wastewater treatment. Since 1970, in the US, the Environmental Protection Agency EPA has invested about seventy billion to improve water treatment plants in 2015 serve around 88% of US population. Another 271 billion still need an upgrade as well as update the system.
Factories are the important points of water pollution. But it is true that ordinary people pollute a lot of water from nonpoint sources. By this way, normal water becomes polluted water in the first place.
Everyone pours chemical in the toilets or the drain. Besides, washing machine and dishwashers pollute our oceans and rivers. We also use pesticides in our garden.
From highway run off a great amount of toxic pollution enters into water. Normally highways are covered with toxic chemicals and cocktail. Everything from brake fluids and spilled fuel worn tires and exhaust emission.
When it rains they get mixed with rivers and drains. Heavy rains summer storm brings this chemical into rivers and ponds. So a huge amount of fish faces death overnight.
Some highway runoff goes into the drain and other pollute groundwater or accumulates in the land next to the road, makes it very toxic as the year passes by.
Detergents are mild substance. If you see it from the other angle, you will see opposite result. The opposite side of the spectrum is very poisonous chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls.
Once they are greatly used to manufacture electronic circuit boards. Now people know the harmful effects of it. So it is prohibited to use in many countries of the world.
An estimated half million tons of PCBs are discharged into the environment during the twentieth century. They are brought there by the oceans, thousands of miles far from where they entered to the environment.
Though the PCBs are elaborately banned, the effects remain for decades as they remain in the environment for a long time except breaking down.
Another type of pollution may occur for some heavy metals like mercury, lead, and cadmium. Once the lead is used in gasoline for some restricted countries in the world. Cadmium and Mercury are still using to make batteries.
In the present days, a highly toxic chemical named tributyltin is being used to save the boats from ravaging effects of the ocean. Ironically, TBT is known as a pollutant: people are using this to save the boat from damage, but they are polluting the water in the sea.
The historic heavy metal pollution happens in the ocean in 1938 when a Japanese factory emitted a great amount of mercury metal to Minamata Bay, having the fish stocks there.
Many people ate the fish and became poisoned around 2000. Hundreds of people became dead and were disable also many.
People become aware of radioactive waste with more alarm- for many good reasons. Having high concentration it may kill, but with a lower concentration, it may cause cancers and some other illnesses.
There are two factories in Europe which are the biggest sources of radioactive pollution. They reprocess the waste fuel from the nuclear power plants: Cap La Hague to the north coast of France and Sellafield to the North West coast of Britain. Both of them discharge radioactive wastewater into the sea. The ocean currents carry it around the whole world.
A country like Norway that is situated in downstream of Britain gets good doses of radioactive pollution from Sellafield.
The government of this country complains again and again that Sellafield increases the radiation level along the coast by six to ten times. Both Norwegian and Irish governments are going on to press for the plant’s closure.
If you think about ocean pollution, great black oil slicks spring to your mind. The spectacular accidents represent a small fraction of all the pollution going into the oceans.
Thinking oil by itself, tanker spill is not very important as they seem to. Only twelve percent of oil which enters into the ocean comes from tanker accident.
Other 70% of pollution occurs for pouring down drains on land and from routine shipping. What makes tanker spills very destructive is the sheer quantity of oil comes from the concentration of oil they produce in 1 much-localized part of the marine environment.
The biggest oil spill happens in the recent years when the tanker Exxon Valdez breaks up in Prince William Sound in Alaska in 1989. About twelve million gallons of oil are releasing into pristine wilderness.
It is sufficient to fill your dwelling rooms 800 times more. It is thought that marine animals are killed in the spill from about 1000 sea otters and 34 thousand birds to as many as 2800 sea otters and 250000 sea birds. Several billions of herring eggs and salmon are believed to face with the destruction.
As you have taken part in community bleach cleaning, you know well that plastic is the common element that washes up with the waves. It has three reasons: plastic is the very common material used to make mostly all kinds of manufactured objects from clothing to the parts of automobiles.
It floats easily and very light, so easy to travel enormous distance across the oceans. Maximum plastics are not biodegradable meaning that plastic can survive in the marine environment for a long time. Plastic can survive up to 400 years, and the plastic fishing line may long for up to 600 years.
Plastics are not so poisonous like the toxic chemicals they do not create a major hazard for fish, seabirds, and other marine creatures. Suppose plastic fishing line, as well as other debris, may strangle or choke fish.
It is true that about half of the world’s seabird species are likely known to eat plastic residues. A study has done on 450 shearwaters in the North Pacific which indicated that about eighty percent of the birds are found to have plastic residues in their stomachs.
At the beginning of the 1990s, marine scientist Tim Benton gathered debris from two km length of the beach to the isolated Pitcairn Islands in the South Pacific.
His study gathered about one thousands of pieces of garbage having 268 pieces of plastic, seventy-one plastic bottles and two dolls heads.