How To Filter Water – An Ultimate Guide
Water filter eliminates dissolved impurities from water by using a fine physical barrier, a biological process or a chemical process.
Filters clean water for different purposes like accessible drinking water, agricultural irrigation, the safe use of swimming pools or ponds, public and private aquaria, etc.
For removing dirt, water filters use two different techniques. Physical filtration means to remove large impurities from water. In another word, a physical filter is a glorified sieve- this may be a piece of thin gauze or a kind of excellent textile membrane.
The other way is chemical filtration, meaning passing water through active material that removes impurities chemically when they pass through.
How to filter water
You are living survival condition, and there is no pure drinking water at your hand. It is very essential to know the way of water purification as you would not make the thing complicated by being sick.
For such situation, you have more options for a camping trip, or you can use a permanent filtration system for your house.
Filtering Water while Camping
Think about the physical filter. In this category Pump, filters are the cheapest option. But they are tedious and slow. For your long trips, you can bring a gas added with a hose.
The bag of is filled with water, after that, hung the bag up to drain water by the filters into the clean bag. The system is convenient, fast and need not carry around to supply of filters.
- The filters are fit for removing bacteria but not suitable for removing viruses. All the areas of US do not need protection against the virus. Check the tourist information centers or areas disease control centers for detailed information for the risk of your regions.
Keep knowledge about chemical disinfection. Tablets are useful against virus and bacteria. They are slow, but they are very cheap. There are two common types of tablets:
- You can keep iodine tablets inside water for at least thirty minutes. Sometimes they are sold in a companion tablets to hide iodine taste. People had a thyroid condition, or pregnant women should remain far from this method. It is advised not to apply it to the water source more than some weeks.
- Chlorine dioxide tablets have thirty-minute waiting time. They are more efficient in Bacterium Cryptosporidium- you have to wait for four minutes before drinking water.
Use UV light treatment. The method can kill viruses and bacteria. If the water is clean, enough the light is used for long enough. Various light pens and UV lamps have different intensities. For this, try to follow the manufacturers’ instructions.
Boil water. It is the best way to kill pathogens. Boil water for at least 1 minute. This is not a good way to boil water for several times all the day. Be aware that you need not more filtration if you are boiling water for the evening meals and the morning coffee.
- For more elevations, you may boil water for less than 3 minutes, because water boils at a low temperature in the air. The high temperature is the factor for destroying or killing viruses or bacteria.
Use stainless steel water bottles. Plastic bottles are made to fill water for one time. Plastic may break down over time and add harmful chemicals to water as well as harbor bacteria. For the aluminum bottles, there is the inner plastic coating; they are not best dishwasher safe, they are very hard to clean.
Drink straight from the spring source. If you are a blessed one and find a mountain spring bubbling over the rock, you can directly drink water from it. This may not apply for a couple of feet away.
- It is not a foolproof rule; it can be dangerous for historical mining, agricultural regions and lower elevation areas close to population centers.
Filtering Water in Wilderness Emergencies
Use a quick filter in an emergency. Pass water through a shirt or coffee filters or a bandana to remove seen debris. Keep water in a fixed place for sometimes to settle particle to the bottom of the pot. After that, pour another container.
If you can boil water for sometimes to remove pathogens prior drinking. The steps under here will aid you to know more about the effective way of the filter. But if you do not buy charcoal, the system needs several hours to finish.
Make charcoal. Charcoal can make a good water filter. This material is now widely used by the manufacturers to make water filters. You can obtain your charcoal in the wilderness if you can make fire. Make a hot wood fire and let it burn completely.
Then cover it with ashes and dirt and wait for few hours before digging. When it becomes cool well, break it up the charred wood into many tiny pieces or oven into dust. You are now able to make own charcoal.
Prepare two containers. You require a top container having small holes to the bottom of filtering and a bottom container to keep filtered water. These are few options:
- If you have easy access to a plastic bottle, cut it to the half portion and use it as a container. Make a gap in the cap for using it as a filtration area.
- Alternatively, use two buckets work, 1 with the hole cut to the bottom.
- In a critical condition to survive, find hollow plants like a good log or a bamboo
Use a cloth to cover the top container’s filtration hole. Expand the fabric over the top of the container. Keep more cloth to cover the whole area; otherwise, charcoal may be washed away.
Tightly pack the charcoal over the cloth. Put charcoal dust and pieces within cloth tightly. Then pour water slowly through the filter of charcoal.
As the water goes smoothly, you need to attempt again and then tightly pack some more charcoal. You have to end up with tight, thick and packed layer – to the half of the container as you use a water bottle as a filter.
Cover the charcoal with pebbles, sand, and more cloth. If you keep additional cloth layer for a second, cover it from being stirred up at the time of pouring water into the container. You can use small pebbles or sand instead of cloth to attract large debris and put the charcoal in the fixed place.
- Leaves and grass are suggested to use when you aware they are free from poisons species.
Keep the upper part of container on top of the bottom container. Put pebble on the top and to the bottom the charcoal. Pour water into the top container and see it drip slowly by the filter to the charcoal container to the bottom.
Repeat until clear
You have for filtering water two to three times to remove impurities from the water. It will remove all particles from water.
Boil the water if possible
The filtering process removes odors or toxins from water. But in the water there remain bacteria. For further safety, you may boil water.
Change the top materials from time to time. The upper or top layer of sand holds microbes and some other contaminants. These contaminants are unsafe to drink. After using a filter for few times, remove the used sand and use again clean sand.
Selecting and Using a Store-Bought Home Filter
Find out which contaminants are in your water. Suppose you are living near US city, you should look up the Environment Working Group database. Or you have to contact with the water utility and require them a report of water quality or need to ask for an environmental group to report on the water issue.
Select a kind of filter. If you like to remove a particular chemical from water, read the package or online description of water filter product to see, they are removed well. You may use the EWG filter selection search.
- The charcoal filter is widely found and comparatively cheap alternative. They have the ability to remove contaminants like mercury, lead, and asbestos.
- Reverse osmosis can remove inorganic pollutants like nitrates and arsenic. They are very water inefficient. Use it only when you are sure to water is contaminated with a chemical carbon need not filter out.
- The de-ionizing filter removes mineral, can turn hard water to soft water. They can not eliminate contaminants.
Select an installation type. There are lots of filtration systems in the market. They are made to fulfill the various demands of the users. Below there are some best options to use at home:
- A picture filter is a conventional system of water filtration. It can supply water for low water use. You may fill the pitcher one time or twice a day and may keep in the refrigerator.
- A faucet- mounted filter is also a traditional way of filtering tap water, but slows down the flow rate of water.
- Under sink or on counter water filters need plumbing modifications. Use a long lasting filtration system. It will require less maintenance.
- Install a full house water filtration system if you see the water is more contaminated and unfit for even bathing.
Set up the filter according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Filter comes to the market with a set of instruction showing how to use it or the way of working procedure. The most cases setting is very simple. If you face any problem to set it up, ask for the manufacturer for necessary help.
Run water through the filter. Take cold water. Then pass it through the filter. In general, cases waterfall on the top of the filter, then it goes down by the filter mechanism where impurities are not present.
The fresh and clean water streams into the bottom of the pitcher or bottle, from the lower part of the faucet, it is up to the kind of filter you use.
- Let not submerge at the time of running water through it. Water that blocks up on the filter at the time of flowing is not pure water.
- The filter may be destroyed by hot water, for such cases see the manufacturer’s instruction well.
Change the filter cartridge as recommended. After few months the carbon filter clogged and failed to purify water. You must buy a new one from the similar manufacturer who made the same filter. Then remove the old one and set up the new one. After a scheduled time, changing is a must to get pure water. The old and damaged cartridge can not ensure pure water.
- Some water filters do the work for more times than other. In this situation, you have to contact the manufacturer for more detailed information. They will provide you more information.
How to do you make a water filter
You need to know the way of water filtration. It is an important thing. There are various ways to create a water filter. The simplest way is to use sand. Sand is the nature’s system to purify water.
Pure sand water filter
- You have to use a container, to begin with. You can use empty or large can if you like. Punch five to ten holes to the bottom of the can. A big plastic bottle is great also. Smoothly cut the end of the bottle. You can use other materials if the container is not easily available.
When you get a birch tree, create a cone of the birch bark. This one will require a fairly small hole in the bottom. Tighten the cone with the help of a rope from opening up.
- First, you need to stop the sand from getting out of the container.
Choose some filter materials then keep them to the bottom of the filter. For instance:
- A grass mesh, be sure there is no poison in it.
- A couple of inches (centimeters) of pebbles.
- Or cotton material.
- You can add a layer of gravel. The benefit of gravel layer is to prevent sands mixed with water or strengthen the filter material from the filter.
- Fill up your cone or bottle with sand.
- At first, collect some water. Then pour water through the filter. Keep it in another container at the bottom. See the water that is coming out of the filter. If it is not clear, you can pass water through the filter for more than once.
Watch: How to filter water
Now you know the procedure of filtering water. If you like to drink water, you need pure water. Still, there are some contaminants in water that your filter can not remove or kill at all.
For improving your water filter, you may add charcoal between the sand layer and the gravel. Get charcoal from the fire and crush it, do not make powder just get gravel size.